So – Usir, god of the underworld, or Osiris, as the Greeks called him. In this spelling, his name is pared down to its two basic symbols, standing for its two basic sounds; a throne for the Us and an eye for ir. You can see slightly more elaborate versions in this inscription:
This version has a third sign, which is called a determinative. A determinative does not have a sound; it is a sign stuck on the end of a word, to give the reader an extra clue about what kind of word it is they’re reading. Remember I said that (mostly) the Egyptian script does not include the vowels? What they wrote down was (mostly) a series of consonants. Two words with the same pattern of consonants might have completely different vowels. You would have been able to tell them apart when you were listening to someone speaking, but it would have been more tricky when you were reading what they’d written. Hence, the detrminative.
In this case, the determinative is the symbol for a god, so the reader would have known the two preceding hieropglyphs were stood for the name of Osiris. You can tell he’s a god by his beard. And he’s sitting on the floor, with his knees sticking up.
And in which direction do you read it? Yep, right to left, as hieroglyphs face the beginning of the sentence. Well remembered!
The throne symbol is a very simplified version of the rone on which Osiris is sitting in the picture I posted last time:
The eagle-eyed will spot his name again, written just above his face. However, you don’t have to go into this much detail when writing your own throne hieroglyph. Just draw a capital L, then box off the corner.
Is there anyone who can’t draw a basic eye? Slightly curved line for lower lid, more curvaceous line for upper lid, circle for the eyeball? I’m assuming anyone who can’t get that far has given up long ago and is no longer reading this blog. For those still here, here’s a close-up from the same tomb painting:
It doesn’t look all that much different from any of the others in this post? Why did I bother? Well, it underlines the point that there’s not much to the drawing of an eye, I suppose.
Before I go, I realise that I left you on a cliffhanger a couple of posts back. I said we would have more anon about why the King was giving an offering, and how it was just the beginning of a long fast food chain. We can get a step further down the chain at this point.
The temples of the major state gods of ancient Egypt were major economic centres. They controlled vast tracts of land, grew crops and managed herds and flocks, had armies of labourers as well as priests, and sometimes had dedicated fleets who traded abroad. The temple complex itself had workshops and cattle yards and huge magazines, where all this wealth was amassed, and where taxes, in the form of grain, were collected and stored. Temples were like incredibly wealthy towns, ruled over by the god, who was woken up in his shrine, washed and dressed, served three meals a day, undressed and put to bed again every day – not counting festival days, when he would come out and parade around the streets and everyone would have a party.
But, technically, all this belonged to the King. Basically, the King had a deal with the gods. The deal was this: the gods would keep the primeval waters from swamping the earth (a constant threat, like a meteorite strike or swine flu today), would make the sun come up and the Nile flood and the crops grow and the King on his throne in a peaceful land, as long as the King kept their cults going and gave them their offerings every day. And the King could own everything, that was fine by them, as long as he gave the gods fair dues. So, the offerings Osiris received in his temple were offerings given by the King.
The next step in the food chain comes later on.