Well here we are, three lines in to the offering formula and about to start on the fourth and last. And here it is:
en ka en imakhy Senwosret, maa-kheru: for the ka of the revered one Senwosret, true of voice.
Sound like anyone you know? Do you revere the colleague whose card or whiteboard you are embellishing? Are they known for their honesty, the accuracy of their pronouncements or their karaoke prowess? Never mind, it’s only a formula. Let’s look at the first bit of it.
en ka en: for the ka of. Let’s do the easy bit first. The Sherlock Holmeses among you will instantly have deduced that the squiggly lines top and bottom correspond to the en.
Elementary. And speaking of elements, the squiggly line in hieroglyphs represents the watery one. It’s a ripple of water:
It’s a zigzag line. What else is there to say? The ka, on the other hand…
The Egyptians didn’t have souls. Or rather, they didn’t just have single souls. The deceased Egyptian exploded into a whole menagerie of afterlife entities: the body, the shadow, the akh (a heron-like bird with a lamp who circled the skies with the stars), the ba (a human-headed bird that hung around the necropolis and twittered mournfully – they’ve made a comeback on the Internet lately) and the ka, or life force.
The ka had its advantages and disadvantages. A disadvantage was that it was confined to the tomb, unlike the ba and the akh. Maybe it kicked the ba and the akh out, so it could get some elbow room, with the body and the shadow. Maybe that was why the ba twittered mournfully. The advantage was that the ka got to ascend the burial shaft, come out through the false door into the offering chapel and feast upon the food and drink brought by the family or magically invoked by the passer-by. The ka was the life force, and it fed upon the life force of the food. But we’ve been through all this before.
The hieroglyph for ka is a pair of upraised arms, as found on the head of this royal ka statue:
What a beautiful, slender yet well moulded pair of arms and shoulders, and delicate, detailed hands. They didn’t always put so much work into the hieroglyphs,
although they have taken care to paint this ka the dark red colour they used for male skin (men being more likely to be outdoors than women, and therefore more tanned). I draw my kas very simply: three straight lines plus a little crescent at each end for the hands.
NB: this ka is not to be confused with the ka meaning bull of a few posts ago. Katie Hughes tweeted a good idea about that some time ago: kh1369 @SusanLlewellyn Egyptians would be sustaining the ka (“spirit”) with ka (meat)? What a multi-purpose word! Also, is “kau” like “cow”? Easy! She’s great at making these connections.