Ok, let’s roll up our sleeves and get back down there with those hieroglyphs. We’re working on Atum’s name in this post. Here it is:
The ‘I or A at the beginning is in brackets because in this spelling it’s not actually written in the ancient Egyptian, although it did sometimes appear. (In some versions, he has an -w sound at the end of his name: ‘Itmw.) That won’t surprise you old Office Hieroglyphs hands, because you know the Egyptians hardly ever write the vowels; what we mostly have are the consonants. But the name derives from the word tm which meant “complete” or “whole”; as the creator god, Atum contained within himself everything out of which he created the world.
The first hieroglyph in Atum’s name needs no introduction; it’s our old Office Hieroglyphs favourite, the loaf of bread standing for the letter t. Here, as we’ve found elsewhere, it is only reinforcing the t sound contained in the biliteral sign which follows:
Now this is a new one. It’s easy to draw: two parallel lines curving up at the ends, a pair of cross-hatchings at each end, and finally a little loop just below the upward curve. It’s not quite so easy to tell what it is. See if you can spot it in this tomb painting:
Well done. Got it in one, didn’t you? It’s a sledge. Right. Just what you need in the frozen wastelands of the Nile Valley. And why not? As I write this, Cool Runnings is on BBC Three, and Ghana is sending a skier to the winter Olympics. I bet if they’d had sledging in the ancient Greek Olympics, the Egyptians would have swept the medals table clean.
The Egyptians used sledges a lot. They didn’t have snow (although some of them did encounter it on their travels in the Asiatic lands) but they had lots of wheel-clogging sand, heavy loads to transport, and wooden axles which couldn’t take the strain of chunky basalt statues or massive blocks of limestone, let alone the odd granite obelisk. Sledges were ideal for transporting heavy weights across the sand, including statues of gods. This picture shows a gang of hauliers dragging along a the seated statue of a tomb owner lashed to a sledge. (The statue, not the tomb owner, that is. The statute is shown at a much larger scale than the men hauling it, because it’s much more important than they are – it’s a representation of the tomb owner, very expensive and very difficult to replace, unlike the workers….) That explains the cross-lines and the loop at the front of the hieroglyph; indications of the ropes which were used to haul the sledge.
And so on to the next sign:
What is it? Nobody knows for sure, but it’s easy to draw; start with the top line, do a blunt, rounded downturn at one end and leave the other end open. It was pronounced ‘im and it’s reinforcing the m in the biliteral sign tm. There, that didn’t take long, did it? Ignorance is much easier than knowledge.
We do know what the final hieroglyph is, though:
It’s a seated god. We know he’s a god because he’s got long hair and a beard, and he’s modestly swathed in an all-enveloping robe, unlike the short-kilted, bare-armed seated man we met at the end of Office Hieroglyphs. The way I draw him is to start at the top of his head and make a long stroke halfway down his back, then do a little dog leg inwards to indicate the end of his hair. Then bring the line down his back and bottom, continue with a straight line across the base, a sharp turn and little slope up for his feet, then a swoop out, up and over for his knees, straight up for his chest, a little wiggle to indicate his face and stick the beard on last.
I don’t need to tell you, because you know from Office Hieroglyphs, that determinatives were not pronounced; they’re only there because the Egyptians didn’t write the vowels, and they needed extra visual clues to tell them which kind of word the consonants were meant to convey. then they knew which vowels to supply themselves when they read it.
So now you can adapt the offering formula so that your colleague’s gifts come from the god Atum instead of Osiris. Wow – you’ve doubled your god quota almost overnight! But Atum without his titles is not much of a substitute for the Lord of Busiris, the Great God, Lord of Abydos. If you’re going to slot Atum into the offering formula instead of Osiris, you need to slot in his full complement, Lord of the Two Lands, Lord of Heliopolis, the Great God, Lord of the Sacred Land, behind him. Otherwise he just looks naked. And you can tell from the all-encompassing robe that he wouldn’t have liked that. Well, would your chairman? And, be honest, who really wants to see the chairman naked?